The basis of CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are one of the essential macronutrients in our diet, alongside fat and protein. They can be categorized into simple carbohydrates (sugars) and complex carbohydrates. This article focuses on simple carbohydrates, specifically monosaccharides and disaccharides, and explores their chemical composition and digestion process.
Simple carbohydrates can be further classified into monosaccharides and disaccharides. Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, while disaccharides are composed of combinations of these monosaccharides. The disaccharides commonly found in our diet are maltose (two glucose molecules), sucrose (glucose linked to fructose), and lactose (glucose linked to galactose). Galactose is primarily present in our diet as part of lactose, found in milk and dairy products.
Monosaccharides, due to their simple structure, can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream without the need for further digestion. However, disaccharides require hydrolysis, a process in which they are broken down into individual monosaccharides. Hydrolysis is a natural part of digestion.
Taking the example of sucrose, an important component of our diet commonly known as table sugar, it can undergo hydrolysis to yield the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. This process allows us to utilize the energy present in disaccharides by converting them into absorbable monosaccharides. Once in the bloodstream, these monosaccharides can be utilized as an energy source by our body.
Carbohydrates play a significant role in our diet as one of the three essential macronutrients. Simple carbohydrates, including monosaccharides and disaccharides, make up a crucial part of our carbohydrate intake. Monosaccharides can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream, while disaccharides undergo hydrolysis during digestion to yield individual monosaccharides. Understanding the composition and digestion process of carbohydrates helps us appreciate their role in providing energy for our body's functions.
Dietary Fiber: A Chemical Perspective
Dietary fiber can be categorized into two main types based on their physicochemical properties: soluble (or viscous) fiber and insoluble (or non-viscous) fiber. Each type exhibits distinct chemical characteristics and plays a role in our overall health.
Soluble fiber encompasses a diverse group of compounds with unique properties. Here are a few examples:
1. Pectin: Found in plant cell walls, pectin is notable for its high content of galacturonic acid. It is commonly used in food manufacturing to enhance gelation, viscosity, texture, and protein stability. Pectin is frequently employed in products such as jams and jellies due to its ability to form stable gels.
2. Hemicellulose: Comprising various polysaccharides composed of different monosaccharides, including xylose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose, hemicellulose forms part of plant cell walls. Psyllium, a widely used fiber supplement, is an example of hemicellulose. Other hemicelluloses like guar gum and xanthan gums are extensively used in the food industry as thickening agents due to their high viscosity.
3. Fructans: Fructans are polymers of fructose. Inulins, highly fermentable fructans, are well-known representatives of this group. Foods such as asparagus, leeks, onions, and bananas naturally contain inulin. Additionally, inulin is added as a functional prebiotic ingredient in food products to provide health benefits.
Insoluble fiber consists of various compounds, including:
1. Cellulose: Composed of a linear chain of glucose units, cellulose is similar to amylose, but its unique bonding pattern makes it indigestible by human digestive enzymes. Consequently, cellulose passes through the body without being broken down. However, ruminant animals, such as cows, possess specialized bacteria in their stomachs that produce cellulase, allowing them to break down and utilize cellulose for energy.
2. Lignins: Unlike other dietary fibers, lignins do not belong to carbohydrates. They are complex polymers of aromatic alcohols. Lignins are the second most abundant natural polymer globally, after cellulose.
3. Resistant Starches: Resistant starches are starches that resist normal digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. They may undergo partial fermentation by the gut microbiota in the colon, depending on the type. Resistant starch can be categorized into distinct groups: RS1 (physically inaccessible starch), RS2 (granular starch), RS3 (retrograded starch), and RS4 (chemically modified starches). For example, cooked and cooled starchy foods like french fries or boiled potatoes may contain retrograded starch, which escapes regular digestion.
Understanding the Glycemic Index (GI) and Glycemic Load
The Glycemic Index (GI) of a food is influenced by several factors, including the type of carbohydrates present, the physical structure of the food, and the presence of other macronutrients. While GI tables suggest a constant value for a specific food, there can be significant variations based on factors such as variety, ripeness, cooking methods, and processing. Additionally, the GI can differ among individuals and within an individual, depending on factors like the time of day, prior food consumption, and exercise.
Certain foods are classified as high GI, including white bread, white rice, glucose, and potatoes. On the other hand, foods with a low GI include beans, whole grain cereals like oats, brown rice, wheat, and rye, as well as most fruits and vegetables. It is interesting to note that fructose has a low GI.
A common critique of the GI is that it is determined for individual foods, which are rarely consumed in isolation, and it does not consider the total amount of carbohydrates consumed. In response to this limitation, the concept of glycemic load (GL) was introduced. The glycemic load is calculated by multiplying the glycemic index of a food by the amount of carbohydrates in a specific serving.
By incorporating the glycemic load, a more comprehensive assessment of the impact of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels can be obtained, taking into account both the quality and quantity of carbohydrates consumed. This approach provides a more nuanced understanding of how different foods affect blood glucose levels and helps individuals make informed dietary choices.